General Kawaguchi, who landed at Taivu Point on the August 31 Express run, was placed in command of all the Japanese troops on Guadalcanal. A barge convoy took another 1, soldiers of Kawaguchi's brigade, under the command of Colonel Akinosuka Oka, to Kamimbo, west of the Lunga perimeter. On September 7, Kawaguchi issued his attack plan to "rout and annihilate the enemy in the vicinity of the Guadalcanal Island airfield.
Oka's forces would attack the perimeter from the west while Ichiki's Second Echelon, now renamed the Kuma Battalion, would attack from the east. The main attack would be by Kawaguchi's "Center Body," numbering 3, men in three battalions, from the south of the Lunga perimeter. By September 7, most of Kawaguchi's troops had departed Taivu to begin marching towards Lunga Point along the coastline.
About Japanese troops remained behind to guard the brigade's supply base at Taviu. Meanwhile, native scouts under the direction of Martin Clemens, a coastwatcher and officer in the Solomon Islands Protectorate Defense Force, brought reports to the U. Marines of Japanese troops at Taivu, near the village of Tasimboko. Edson planned a raid to "wipe-out" the Japanese troop concentration at Taivu. On September 8, after being dropped-off near Taivu by boat, Edson's men captured Tasimboko as the Japanese defenders retreated into the jungle.
In Tasimboko, Edson's troops discovered "vast stockpiles" of food, ammunition, medical supplies, and a powerful shortwave radio. After destroying everything in sight, except for some documents and equipment carried back with them, the Marines returned to the Lunga perimeter. The mounds of supplies, along with intelligence gathered from the captured documents, informed the Marines that at least 3, Japanese troops were on the island and apparently planning an attack on the U. Edson, along with Colonel Gerald Thomas, Vandegrift's operations officer, believed that the Japanese attack would come at a narrow, grassy, 1,yard-long, coral ridge that paralleled the Lunga River and was located just south of Henderson Field.
The unnamed ridge offered a natural avenue of approach to the airfield, commanded the surrounding area and, at that time, was almost undefended. On September 11, the men of Edson's battalion deployed onto and around the ridge and prepared to defend it. On the night of September 12, Kawaguchi's 1st Battalion attacked the Raider's between the Lunga River and ridge, forcing one Marine company to fall back to the ridge.
The next night, Kawaguchi faced Edson's Raiders with 3, troops of his brigade, plus an assortment of light artillery. The Japanese attack began just after nightfall, with Kawaguchi's 1st battalion assaulting Edson's right flank, just to the west of the ridge. After breaking through the Marine lines, the battalion's assault was eventually stopped by Marine units guarding the northern part of the ridge.
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Two companies from Kawaguchi's 2nd battalion charged up the southern edge of the ridge and pushed Edson's troops back to Hill on the center part of the ridge. Throughout the night, Marines at this position, supported by artillery, defeated wave after wave of frontal Japanese attacks. Japanese units that infiltrated past the ridge to the edge of the airfield were also repulsed. Attacks by the Kuma battalion and Oka's unit at other locations on the Lunga perimeter were also defeated by the Marine defenses. On September 14, Kawaguchi led the survivors of his shattered brigade on a five day march west to the Matanikau Valley to join with Oka's unit.
In total, Kawaguchi's forces lost about killed and the Marines In an emergency session, the top Japanese army and navy command staffs concluded that, "Guadalcanal might develop into the decisive battle of the war. Hyakutake realized that in order to send sufficient troops and material to defeat the Allied forces on Guadalcanal, he could no longer at the same time support the major Japanese offensive currently ongoing on the Kokoda Track in New Guinea.
Hyakutake, with the concurrence of the General Headquarters, ordered his troops on New Guinea, who were within miles of their objective of Port Moresby, to withdraw until the "Guadalcanal matter" was resolved. Hyakutake prepared to send more troops to Guadalcanal for another attempt to recapture Henderson Field. As the Japanese regrouped west of the Matanikau, the U.
These reinforcements allowed Vandegrift, beginning on September 19, to establish an unbroken line of defense completely around the Lunga perimeter. While covering this convoy, the U. Vandegrift also made some changes in the senior leadership of his combat units, transferring several officers off the island that didn't meet his performance standards, and promoting junior officers who had "proved themselves" to take their places. One of these was the recently promoted Colonel Merritt Edson, who was placed in command of the 5th Marine Regiment.
A lull occurred in the air war over Guadalcanal, with no Japanese air raids occurring between September 14 and September 27 due to bad weather, during which both sides reinforced their respective air units. The Japanese delivered 85 fighters and bombers to their air units at Rabaul while the U. On September 20, the Japanese counted total aircraft at Rabaul while the Allies tallied 71 aircraft at Henderson Field. The air war resumed with a Japanese air raid on Guadalcanal on September 27, which was contested by U. Navy and Marine fighters from Henderson Field. The Japanese immediately began to prepare for their next attempt to recapture Henderson Field.
By now, though, the battalion had joined Oka's forces near the Matanikau. Tokyo Express runs on September 14, 20, 21, and 24 by destroyers brought food and ammunition, as well as men from the 1st Battalion, Aoba Regiment, to Kamimbo on Guadalcanal.
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Much of the Japanese 38th Division in the Dutch East Indies was notified to move to Rabaul in preparation for deployment to Guadalcanal. The Japanese planned to transport a total of 17, troops from the 2nd and 38th Divisions to the island to take part in the next major attack on the Lunga Perimeter, set for October 20, General Vandegrift and his staff were aware that Kawaguchi's troops had retreated to the area west of the Matanikau and that numerous groups of Japanese stragglers were scattered throughout the area between the Lunga Perimeter and the Matanikau River.
Vandegrift, therefore, decided to conduct another series of small unit operations around the Matanikau Valley. The purpose of these operations was to "mop-up" the scattered groups of Japanese troops east of the Matanikau and to keep the main body of Japanese soldiers off-balance to prevent them from consolidating their positions so close to the main Marine defenses at Lunga Point.
The first U. Marine operation and attempt to attack Japanese forces west of the Matanikau, conducted between September 23 and September 27, , by elements of three U. Marine battalions, was repulsed by Kawaguchi's troops under Akinosuka Oka's local command.
During the action, three U. Marine companies were surrounded by Japanese forces near Point Cruz west of the Matanikau, took heavy losses, and barely escaped with assistance from a U. Navy destroyer and landing craft manned by U. Coast Guard personnel. In the second action between October 6 and 9, a larger force of U.
Marines successfully crossed the Matanikau River, attacked newly landed Japanese forces from the 2nd Infantry Division under the command of generals Masao Maruyama and Yumio Nasu, and almost completely destroyed the Japanese 4th Infantry Regiment. The second action forced the Japanese to retreat from their positions east of the Matanikau and hindered Japanese preparations for their planned major offensive on the U.
Lunga defenses set for later in October, Between October 9 and October 11 the U.
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The raids killed 35 Japanese at a cost of 17 Marines and three U. Navy personnel killed. Throughout the last week of September and the first week of October, Tokyo Express runs delivered troops from the Japanese 2nd Infantry Division to Guadalcanal. The Japanese Navy promised to support the Army's planned offensive by not only delivering the necessary troops, equipment, and supplies to the island, but by stepping-up air attacks on Henderson Field and sending warships to bombard the airfield. In the meantime, Major General Millard F. Marine forces on Guadalcanal needed to be reinforced immediately if the Allies were to successfully defend the island from the next, expected Japanese offensive.
Thus, on October 8, the 2, men of the th Infantry Regiment from the U.
Army's Americal Division boarded ships at New Caledonia for the trip to Guadalcanal with a projected arrival date of October To protect the transports carrying the th to Guadalcanal, Ghormley ordered Task Force 64, consisting of four cruisers and five destroyers under U. Rear Admiral Norman Scott, to intercept and combat any Japanese ships that approached Guadalcanal and threatened the arrival of the transport convoy. Mikawa's Eighth Fleet staff scheduled a large and "singularly important" Tokyo Express supply run for the night of October Two seaplane tenders and six destroyers were to deliver soldiers plus artillery and ammunition to Guadalcanal.
Due to the fact that U. Navy warships had yet to attempt to interdict any Tokyo Express missions to Guadalcanal, the Japanese weren't expecting any opposition from naval surface forces that night. During the exchange of gunfire, one of Scott's destroyers was sunk and one cruiser and another destroyer were heavily damaged.
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In the meantime, the Japanese supply convoy successfully completed unloading at Guadalcanal and began its return journey without being discovered by Scott's force. The convoy of U. Army troops reached Guadalcanal as scheduled the next day. In spite of the U. The Japanese decided to risk a one-time departure from their usual practice of only using fast warships to deliver their men and material to the island.
On October 13, a convoy comprising six fast cargo ships with eight screening destroyers departed the Shortland Islands for Guadalcanal. The convoy carried 4, troops from the 16th and th Infantry Regiments, some naval marines, and two batteries of heavy artillery and one company of tanks.
grupolena.com/rijy-location-where-a.php Over the next one hour and 23 minutes, the two battleships fired inch shells into the Lunga perimeter, most of them falling in and around the 2,meter-square area of the airfield. The bombardment heavily damaged both runways, burned almost all of the available aviation fuel, destroyed 48 of the CAF's 90 aircraft, and killed 41 men, including six CAF pilots. In spite of the heavy damage, Henderson personnel were able to restore one of the runways to operational condition within a few hours.
Army and Marine transport aircraft began to shuttle aviation gasoline from Espiritu Santo to Guadalcanal.
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Now aware of the approach of the large Japanese reinforcement convoy, the U. Using fuel drained from destroyed aircraft, the CAF attacked the convoy twice on the 14th, but caused no damage. The Japanese convoy reached Tassafaronga on Guadalcanal at midnight on October 14 and began unloading. Throughout the day of October 15, a string of CAF aircraft from Henderson bombed and strafed the unloading convoy, destroying three of the cargo ships. The convoy departed that night, having unloaded 4, troops and about two-thirds of the supplies and equipment.
Several Japanese heavy cruisers also bombarded Henderson on the nights of October 14 and 15, destroying additional CAF aircraft, but failing to cause significant further damage to the airfield. Finally on October 23, with the addition of more troops, the Japanese made another attempt to capture Henderson Field from the south of the salient. The newly arrived U.
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