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If an impact is to be made on this disability burden, we must understand the risk and protective factors for cognitive decline, frailty and chronic disease associated with ageing. The best approach is to study this using population-based ageing cohorts. A large number of such studies are ongoing internationally, and have identified a diverse range of factors [1], but there is considerable inconsistency in the results produced [2] and the existing evidence needs further systematic examination.

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Researchers of brain ageing from around the world come together in the COSMIC collaboration to determine what factors are common for cognitive decline and dementia in all human populations irrespective of race, ethnicity and socioeconomic development. We argue that the way to deal with inconsistencies in the literature is to harmonise international studies so that data can be pooled and risk factors examined with greatly increased power. Accordingly, COSMIC Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium has so far brought together 37 cohort studies of cognitive ageing from 29 countries across 6 continents, with a combined sample size of over , individuals.

The aim of the collaboration is to facilitate a better understanding of the determinants of cognitive ageing and neurocognitive disorders. This is being achieved by:.

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Darren Lipnicki : d. Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium: An international consortium to combine data from population-based longitudinal cohorts studies to identify common risk factors for dementia and cognitive decline.


About COSMIC Ageing is intricately connected with cognitive decline, and there is an increasing proportion of life lived with cognitive impairment as the lifespan increases. In This Section. The charged pions can swiftly decay, emitting particles called muons. Unlike pions, these do not interact strongly with matter, and can travel through the atmosphere to penetrate below ground.

What is a COSMIC Mutation ID?

Studies of cosmic rays opened the door to a world of particles beyond the confines of the atom: the first particle of antimatter , the positron the antielectron was discovered in , the muon in , followed by the pion, the kaon and several more. Until the advent of high-energy particle accelerators in the early s, this natural radiation provided the only way to investigate the growing particle "zoo".

Indeed, when CERN was founded in , its convention included cosmic rays in the list of scientific interests. But even though accelerators came to provide the best hunting ground for new particles, the physics of cosmic rays is still widely studied. The energies of the primary cosmic rays range from around 1 GeV — the energy of a relatively small particle accelerator — to as much as 10 8 TeV, far higher than the beam energy of the Large Hadron Collider. The rate at which these particles arrive at the top of the atmosphere falls off with increasing energy, from about 10 per square metre per second at 1 GeV to less than one per square kilometre per century for the highest energy particles. The very high-energy cosmic rays generate huge showers of up to 10 billion secondary particles or more, which can be picked up by particle detectors when they are spread over areas as large as 20 square kilometres on the surface of the Earth. Just how do cosmic rays reach such high energies?

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Where are the natural accelerators? The lowest energy cosmic rays arrive from the Sun in a stream of charged particles known as the solar wind, but pinning down the origin of the higher-energy particles is made difficult as they twist and turn in the magnetic fields of interstellar space. Clues have come through studying high-energy gamma rays from outer space.

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These are far fewer than the charged cosmic rays, but being electrically neutral they are not influenced by magnetic fields. They generate showers of secondary particles that can be detected on Earth and that point back towards the point of origin of the gamma rays.

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Sources of the highest energy gamma rays in our own galaxy, the Milky Way, include the remnants of supernovae, such as the famous Crab Nebula ; the shock waves from these stellar explosions have long been proposed as possible natural accelerators.

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