One tool that can be used to understand how users will adopt a new technology comes from a study by Everett Rogers. He identified five specific types of technology adopters:. These five types of users can be translated into information-technology adopters as well , and provide additional insight into how to implement new information systems within an organization.
For example, when rolling out a new system, IT may want to identify the innovators and early adopters within the organization and work with them first, then leverage their adoption to drive the rest of the implementation. In this chapter, we have reviewed the many different categories of individuals who make up the people component of information systems. The world of information technology is changing so fast that new roles are being created all the time, and roles that existed for decades are being phased out.
That said , this chapter should have given you a good idea of the importance of the people component of information systems. Bourgeois is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Learning Objectives Upon successful completion of this chapter, you will be able to: describe each of the different roles that people play in the design, development, and use of information systems; understand the different career paths available to those who work with information systems; explain the importance of where the information-systems function is placed in an organization; and describe the different types of users of information systems.
Introduction In the opening chapters of this text, we focused on the technology behind information systems: hardware, software, data, and networking. The Creators of Information Systems The first group of people we are going to look at play a role in designing, developing, and building information systems. Programmer Programmers spend their time writing computer code in a programming language. Computer Engineer Computer engineers design the computing devices that we use every day. Some of the more prominent engineering jobs are as follows: Hardware engineer. A hardware engineer designs hardware components, such as microprocessors.
MAJOR LESSONS & BEST PRACTICES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
Many times, a hardware engineer is at the cutting edge of computing technology, creating something brand new. Software engineer. Software engineers do not actually design devices; instead, they create new programming languages and operating systems, working at the lowest levels of the hardware to develop new kinds of software to run on the hardware. Systems engineer. A systems engineer takes the components designed by other engineers and makes them all work together. For example, to build a computer, the mother board, processor, memory, and hard disk all have to work together.
Network engineer. Information-Systems Operations and Administration Another group of information-systems professionals are involved in the day-to-day operations and administration of IT. Computer Operator A computer operator is the person who keeps the large computers running.
Database Administrator A database administrator DBA is the person who manages the databases for an organization. Trainer A computer trainer conducts classes to teach people specific computer skills.
Managing Information Systems The management of information-systems functions is critical to the success of information systems within the organization. Functional Manager As an information-systems organization becomes larger, many of the different functions are grouped together and led by a manager.
Project Managers Information-systems projects are notorious for going over budget and being delivered late.
Organisational Dimensions of Information Systems
Information-Security Officer An information-security officer is in charge of setting information-security policies for an organization, and then overseeing the implementation of those policies. Emerging Roles As technology evolves, many new roles are becoming more common as other roles fade. Career Paths in Information Systems These job descriptions do not represent all possible jobs within an information-systems organization.
Sidebar: Are Certifications Worth Pursuing? Outsourcing Many times, an organization needs a specific skill for a limited period of time. New Models of Organizations The integration of information technology has influenced the structure of organizations. Information-Systems Users — Types of Users Besides the people who work to create, administer, and manage information systems, there is one more extremely important group of people: the users of information systems. Technology adoption user types click to enlarge.
Public Domain One tool that can be used to understand how users will adopt a new technology comes from a study by Everett Rogers. He identified five specific types of technology adopters: Innovators. Innovators are the first individuals to adopt a new technology. Innovators are willing to take risks, are the youngest in age, have the highest social class, have great financial liquidity, are very social, and have the closest contact with scientific sources and interaction with other innovators. Risk tolerance has them adopting technologies that may ultimately fail.
Financial resources help absorb these failures Rogers 5th ed, p. Early adopters. The early adopters are those who adopt innovation after a technology has been introduced and proven. These individuals have the highest degree of opinion leadership among the other adopter categories, which means that they can influence the opinions of the largest majority. These people are more discrete in adoption choices than innovators, and realize judicious choice of adoption will help them maintain a central communication position Rogers 5th ed, p.
Early majority. Individuals in this category adopt an innovation after a varying degree of time. This time of adoption is significantly longer than the innovators and early adopters. This group tends to be slower in the adoption process, has above average social status, has contact with early adopters, and seldom holds positions of opinion leadership in a system Rogers 5th ed, p. Late majority. The late majority will adopt an innovation after the average member of the society. Individuals in this category are the last to adopt an innovation.
These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents and tend to be advanced in age. Summary In this chapter, we have reviewed the many different categories of individuals who make up the people component of information systems. Study Questions Describe the role of a systems analyst. What are some of the different roles for a computer engineer?
What are the duties of a computer operator? What does the CIO do? Describe the job of a project manager. Explain the point of having two different career paths in information systems. What are the advantages and disadvantages of centralizing the IT function?
- The Organizational Dimensions of Management Information Systems Implementation | SpringerLink!
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What impact has information technology had on the way companies are organized? What are the five types of information-systems users? Why would an organization outsource?
Types of Information System: TPS, DSS & Pyramid Diagram
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