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Several studies have suggested its role in different stages of tumor progression. CD44 can act as both, tumor promoter and tumor suppressor depending on cancer cell type. Since its role was controversial in cancer, our laboratory has extensively investigated its role in BC using Tet-Off inducible system combined with microarray analysis and various molecular and functional approaches, in order to better understand its precise function in metastasis and further determine the specific underlying mechanisms.
One of the major elements required for improving the longevity and quality of a patient's life is the development of early detection methods and targeted therapies that can aid in controlling cancer metastasis. Although, CD44 is not a stable marker for luminal BC subtypes, it frequently serves as a marker for triple-negative BC [ , ]. Bendas G, Borsig L. International Journal of Cell Biology.
Hart I, Easty D. Tumor cell progression and differentiation in metastasis. Semin Cancer Biol. Albelda S. Role of integrins and other cell adhesion molecules in tumor progression and metastasis. Lab Invest.
Tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin and its role in normal and malignant cells. Cancer Cell International. CD44 in cancer. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. Cancer Research. The role of metastasis suppressor genes in metastatic dormancy. Cortactin underpins CDpromoted invasion and adhesion of breast cancer cells to bone marrow endothelial cells. The American Journal of Pathology. Sen Y, Yip GW. CD44 CD44 molecule Indian blood group. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Hyaluronate receptors: key players in growth, differentiation, migration and tumor progression. Curr Opin Cell Biol. Cleaved CD44 intracellular domain supports activation of stemness factors and promotes tumorigenesis of breast cancer. Journal of Biological Chemistry.
CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate. CD44 participates in the adhesion of human colorectal carcinoma cells to laminin and type IV collagen.
Signaling Pathways Altered During the Metastatic Progression of Melanoma
Surgical Oncology. Jalkanen S, Jalkanen M. The Journal of Cell Biology. Osteopontin overexpression in breast cancer: Knowledge gained and possible implications for clinical management. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Survivin is not only a death encounter but also a survival protein for invading tumor cells.
Targeting Signal Transduction Pathways in Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Review
Frontiers in Bioscience. Proteolytic release of CD44 intracellular domain and its role in the CD44 signaling pathway. Histochem J.
Rho-kinase ROK promotes CD44v3,ankyrin interaction and tumor cell migration in metastatic breast cancer cells. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton.
Liu D, Sy MS. Phorbol myristate acetate stimulates the dimerization of CD44 involving a cysteine in the transmembrane domain.
The metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1
The Journal of Immunology. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. CD44 variant exon epitopes in primary breast cancer and length of survival. The Lancet. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Hyaluronan: a multifunctional, megaDalton, stealth molecule. Current Opinion in Cell Biology. Molecular Cancer Research. ERM proteins and merlin: integrators at the cell cortex. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol.
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- 1. Introduction.
- Signaling Pathways and Molecular Mediators in Metastasis.
Yu Q, Stamenkovic I. Localization of matrix metalloproteinase 9 to the cell surface provides a mechanism for CDmediated tumor invasion. Genes Dev. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Early-response gene signalling is induced by angiogenic oligosaccharides of hyaluronan in endothelial cells. Inhibition by non-angiogenic, high-molecular-weight hyaluronan. International Journal of Cancer. CD44 in cancer progression: adhesion, migration and growth regulation. J Mol Histol. CD44s is useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast. Journal of Clinical Pathology.
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The role of CD44v3 expression in female breast carcinomas. Pol J Pathol. J Exp Clin Cancer Res.
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